ecbi - The European Capacity Building Initiative
The ecbi Chronicle: full listing of News Items
2014 Bonn Seminar
The 2014 ecbi Bonn Seminar took place at the Altes Rathaus in Bonn, Germany, on the afternoon of 9 June.• Welcome Address from Mayor Nimptsch
The Seminar was attended by over 45 negotiators and representatives from developing countries and Europe,
including the two Chairs of the Ad-Hoc Group on the Durban Platform (ADP), the key negotiating body for the future climate agreement.
Discussions were held on: financial support for climate change; whether or not the post-2015 climate agreement should differentiate expected engagement of countries by using ex-ante country lists (Annexes); and how to ensure a just outcome, both with respect to equity(intragenerational justice) and ambition (intergenerational justice).
Bo Kjellén, Co-Chair of the ecbi Advisory Committee, opened the meeting and chaired the sessions. The proceedings began with the reading of a message from the Lord Mayor of Bonn, Jürgen Nimptsch, who praised the ecbi for “opening doors for trust and understanding in the global climate debate by advancing an exchange between … North and South”.
• Bonn Seminar Report, June 2014
ecbi Advisory Committee Co-chair appointed Minister
Mr Pa Ousman Jarju, Co-chair of the ecbi Advisory Committee and former Special Envoy on Climate Change, has been appointed Minister for Environment, Climate Change, Water Resources and Parks & Wildlife of the Republic of the Gambia. He recently made the following statement about his involvement in the ecbi (Annual Report 2013-14):
"I have been associated with ecbi for nine years – from my early years in the climate negotiations when I was a junior negotiator for the Gambia, attending one of the ecbi capacity building workshops during the Montreal conference in 2005. The ecbi has been a constant and indispensable companion through my journey since then, first as a negotiator for my country, then Chair of the Group of Least Developed Countries (LDC), and now as Gambia’s Special Climate Envoy.
The Initiative has played a key role in building my own capacity, and that of many of my developing country colleagues. It has also helped us develop personal relationships with negotiators from other countries, regions and groups, to enable us to communicate as friends, and hence raise the trust quotient in a process that is otherwise fraught with distrust. This is manifested through the annual Bonn seminars and Oxford fellowships.
The LDC Group, in particular, has benefitted from the activities of the ecbi. The Initiative has helped the Group cultivate experts in each complex strain of the UNFCCC negotiations through its workshops and bursaries. The constant support provided to the LDC Chair over the past ten years (both before and after my tenure as Chair) has helped the Group grow from strength to strength, and institutionalise many essential activities such as preparatory meetings and the LDC Paper Series, which I started during my time as LDC Chair.
Critical support has also been provided to LDC representatives in key climate-related processes such as the Green Climate Fund Board and the Standing Committee on Finance, hence ensuring that the concerns of the most vulnerable countries are not bypassed or forgotten.
In order to build such a close working relationship with many groups, the ecbi has had to demonstrate, first and foremost, that it is worthy of the trust placed in it by negotiators. The success of the Initiative is proof that it has managed to achieve this trust.
I am pleased to serve on the Advisory Committee, and see a critical role for the Initiative in the years to come, as we negotiate the perilous months and years towards a 2015 climate agreement, and its implementation in 2020."
Establishing a GCF operated Southern Solidarity Fund
A new ecbi Legal Note by Charlotte Streck and David Rossati explores the options for establishing such a Southern Solidarity Fund as a separate, ring-fenced funding entity operated by the GCF.• Legal Note
QELROs in Paris
A new ecbi Legal Note by Wouter Geldhof, Tom Ruys, and Benito Müller which considers the legal options for creating such a space for Quantified Emission Limitation and Reduction Obligations (QELROs) in the Paris Agreement. In particular, it explores the legal feasibility of having an annex to a Treaty/Protocol where Parties could inscribe targets which would automatically become legally binding. • Legal Note
New briefings on key issues in the climate negotiations for LDCs
ecbi and CDKN have produced three briefing notes that summarise three of the greatest issues of concern for LDCs: differentiated responsibilities for climate mitigation; monitoring, reporting and verification; and National Adaptation Plans (NAPs). • NAPAs and NAPs in Least Developed Countries
These LDC Briefings come from a larger set of nine LDC Papers for the Group of Least Developed Countries (LDCs), which ecbi and CDKN produced in 2013-2014 (See link below). While the LDC Papers were produced specifically for LDC Group negotiators to the UNFCCC, the LDC Briefings are written for a wider audience, to raise broader awareness of LDC concerns.
• LDC Concerns Related to MRV in the Climate Regime
• Differentiated Mitigation Commitments in the Climate Agreement
Capacity Building is not only ‘Training’
A Note from Benito Müller in response to CDKN’s Working Paper on Supporting international climate negotiators: Lessons from CDKN. The paper includes CDKN’s theoretical approach to ‘amplifying the voices of the poorest and most climate-vulnerable countries’; yet at the same time reveals some tensions between what practice requires and what funding rules permit. This Note discusses some of these tensions based on lessons learned providing support to international climate change negotiators. • Note
South-South Solidarity in Climate Finance: A GCF operated SOUTHERN SOLIDARITY FUND
This Concept Note by Benito Müller introduces the idea of a Southern Solidarity Fund, to be operated by the Green Climate Fund, which would allow solidarity contributions to climate finance by developing countries as part of South-South collaboration.• Concept Note
Devolved Access Modalities: Lessons for the Green Climate Fund from Existing Practice
The Green Climate Fund (GCF) Board is in the process of considering "additional modalities that further enhance direct access". A devolved and decentralized access modality has been proposed as an alternative to the more traditional model, where detailed project approval is carried out at the multilateral level. This ecbi Policy Brief by Benito Müller and William Pizer explains the relation between "enhanced direct access" and "programmatic approaches," and addresses certain concerns raised about this decentralized/devolved access model, using seven case studies to illustrate current practices that could provide ideas and insights about how the GCF might design its own approach. The case studies are focused around four questions: • Devolved Access Policy Brief
a. How does the funding model generally work, in terms of disbursing funds?
b. Who decides what? What decisions are taken by the governing funding body and what decisions are devolved and to whom?
c. How does this funding model ensure the governing body’s objectives are met, and how does it ensure that the various fiduciary standards and safeguards are satisfied?
d. How is the funding level for a particular programme determined?
What is EDA? A Rough Guide to Enhanced Direct Access
This Rough Guide to Enhanced Direct Access (EDA) by Benito Müller provides the key conceptual tools needed to understand EDA and exemplifies the main access models graphically with a number of figures, meant to illustrate the key differences between these models.• EDA Guide
Pre-GCF Board Meeting Luncheon Discussion “Country Ownership and Enhancing Direct Access"
On 17 February 2014, the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Indonesia, host to the sixth meeting of the Green Climate Fund Board GCFB, convened a pre-GCF Board Meeting Luncheon Discussion on “Country Ownership and Enhancing Direct Access”, in the Bali Nusa Dua Convention Centre, Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia. The ecbi was honoured to be able to provide support in organising the event.• ecbi Finance Circle library
The discussion was aimed to provide a space for the Board and observer organizations to examine the key issues that need to be addressed relating to realising country ownership by enhancing direct access in different ways based on country circumstances in the design of GCF. It featured presentations of ideas from the Board members/alternates and experts as well as lessons learned from national and international funding institutions.
Welcoming remarks by Mr Irfa Ampri (Alternate Member GCFB, Indonesia) on behalf of the host country and Mr Manfred Konukiewitz (Co-chair GCFB, Germany) on behalf of the Board were followed by an introductory presentation by Ms Carol Mwape (former LDC Member of the Transitional Committee, Zambia), and by presentations on: a) the Brazilian Amazon Fund (Juliana Santiago); b) he Indonesian Climate Change Fund (Syamsidar Thamrin); c) the Bangladesh Climate Change Resilience Fund (Munjurul Khan); and d) the EU Global Climate Change Alliance (Philippe Jacques).
The presentation are available in the public section of the ecbi Finance Circle library.
The event was concluded by a panel discussion on the way forward facilitated by Mr Dipak Dasgupta (Alternate Member GCFB, India).
The Oxford Approach: Operationalising ‘Respective Capabilities’
Whether or not the regime emerging from the current negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will be based on an explicit cost/burden sharing formula, the debate about (implied) costs/burdens will be central. Such a debate cannot be genuinely meaningful in the absence of an acceptable operationalisation of Article 3.1 in general, and of the concept of ‘respective capability’ in particular.• Policy Brief
The Brief proposes a measure for national 'differentiated economic capabilities ('ability to pay') as integral part of an operationalisation. The primary purpose of the measure is to define or assess climate change cost/burden sharing (schemes). To illustrate the potential use of this methodology the Brief considers two examples: assessing the fairness of a given cost distribution; and developing a (rule-based) 'graduation scheme' regarding obligations to pay.
This is a second revised edition of the original ecbi Policy Brief by Benito Müller & Lavan Mahadeva that served as summary for policy makers of a technical report by the same authors published by the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, available at the link below. The revision is mainly with regards to the final section on determining ‘Levels of Capability’
Independent Evaluation of ecbi Phase III
Sida funded an independent evaluation of ecbi for its 2011-2013 activities and found that the ecbi has achieved its overall outcomes as outlined in the report. The ecbi was found to fulfil a need not met by other initiatives and become an established presence in the climate change negotiation field - set apart by its participatory, impartial, developing countryled approach, which is rooted in negotiation experience. • Evaluation Report
Respondents also communicated strongly that they believed the ecbi is enabling trust building between participating negotiators and enabled developing country negotiators to collaborate and develop joint positions which has impacted negotiation decisions. Lastly, examples were identified of how the ecbi initiative has led to a more level playing field for developing country negotiators and women negotiators.
Enhancing Direct Access and Country Ownership: Status Quo and the Way Forward
The Green Climate Fund is at a crossroads where it must choose between the traditional centralized or a novel devolved decision making model. The next meeting of the GCF in February will be key as it will for the first time be explicitly discussing enhanced direct access through (national) funding entities which has devolution of decision making as its corner stone. This Discussion Note by Benito Müller takes stock of the deliberations on direct access and the correlated issue of country ownership, and considers how these issues should be taken forward at the February meeting.• Discussion Note
ecbi Finance Circle meets in Warsaw
A meeting of the ecbi Finance Circle was held on 13 November at COP 19 in Warsaw. There were 26 participants from Algeria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Botswana, the DRC, the EU, France, the Gambia, Germany, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Uganda, the UK, and the US including two co-chairs of the LTF and the SCF. For a brief summary of the meeting, please refer to the report below.• Meeting Report
GCF caucus meeting, 6 October 2013
On the eve of the fifth meeting of the Green Climate Fund Board in Paris, the ecbi organised an informal discussion meeting for Board members and advisers interested in the topics of resource allocation and Enhanced Direct Access through National Funding Entities. There were participants from Brazil, France, Guinea-Bissau, India, Norway, Pakistan, Switzerland, and the UK.• Meeting Summary
Negotiators Workshop in Bangladesh
A negotiators workshop on the legal issues and challenges related to climate change was held in Bangladesh on September 22nd 2013. Organised by the Centre for Climate Justice-Bangladesh (CCJ-B) in collaboration with the Department of the Environment (DoE), Ministry of Environment and Forest and the Legal Response Initiative (LRI). The aim was to build and strengthen legal capacity on climate change in the country; focusing on the complex legal issues involved with ongoing UNFCCC negotiations and taking into account the legally binding instrument to be adopted by 2015, by the Parties of UNFCCC. The workshop also looked at developing a domestic legal framework to deal with climate change impacts at the national level. • Presentation on Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change
Please see presentations below for further information.
• Presentation: Climate Negotiations – Legal Workshop
• Presentation: Legally Binding Instruments under UNFCCC
Training workshop for Asian LDC climate change negotiators
On September 20th 2013, ecbi with support from GIZ Bangladesh and Bangladesh’s Ministry of Environment and Forests hosted a two day training workshop for Asian LDC climate change negotiators in Dhaka. The workshop was attended by 40 participants and took place at the Sonargaon Hotel. Participants were introduced to the UNFCCC negotiations process and the work of the LDC Group through various presentations, which included interactive sessions on legal drafting and open discussion on the upcoming COP in Warsaw and LDC priorities for a 2015 agreement.• Background Paper
ecbi Policy Brief authors win MIT Climate Co-Lab Popular Choice Award!
A proposal based on the recent ecbi Policy Brief Crowdfunding for Climate Change: A new source of funding for climate action at the local level? has won the Popular Choice Award in the 2013 MIT Climate Co-Lab “Scaling renewables in major emerging economies” contest. • Contest Proposal
Co-authors Konrad von Ritter and Diann Black-Layne entered their proposal, From the Crowd to the Base: Crowdfunding for Local Climate Action, in the “scaling renewables” category of the contest shortly after the ecbi policy brief was completed in May 2013. The policy brief and proposal consider ways in which crowdfunding for climate change (CF4CC) could be used to get funds to the 1.5 billion urban and rural poor currently without access to modern energy, to enable them to invest in renewable energy systems such as solar home systems, energy efficient products, or mini-grids serving communities and small towns.
The Climate Co-Lab includes 18 categories, each focused on a challenge the world is facing as we confront climate change. Nearly 400 proposals were received, championing new technologies, community projects, online apps and websites, marketing strategies, business ideas, and government initiatives. After a series of revisions, 59 promising proposals were chosen as finalists. Online voting then took place to select the winners. Over 4500 votes were cast, from almost every country in the world.
“I am very impressed with the number and quality of proposals we had in this year's contest,” Professor Tomas W. Malone, Director of the MIT Centre for Collective Intelligence said in his letter congratulating the authors. “I hope you are as proud as I am of what you have contributed.”
• Policy Brief
2013 Oxford Fellowships and Seminar
The 2013 ecbi Fellowship Colloquium took place from 5-7 August in Merton College, Oxford, followed by the Oxford Seminar on 8 and 9 August. During the Fellowship Colloquium, 17 senior negotiators from developing countries discussed key areas of concern in under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). They were joined by 13 senior negotiators from Europe during the Oxford Seminar, and discussed contentious issues such as the legal form of a future outcome, equity, mitigation, adaptation, technology transfer, finance, and the governance and accountability of operating entities (including the Green Climate Fund, or GCF).• Fellowship Colloquium Presentations
As the participants at the Seminar this year, the ninth in the series, included a number of key office holders in the UNFCCC process, a discussion on the priorities for the next conference of parties in Warsaw, Poland also took place. Participants included the COP Presidency's special envoy for climate change; the developing country co-chair of the Ad-Hoc Group on the Durban Platform (ADP); the Chairs of the G77+China Group and Africa Group; lead negotiators from Europe; senior representatives from Least Developed Countries (LDCs); and key office holders in UNFCCC bodies, including the developing country Co-chair and members of the Standing Committee on Finance, and members of the GCF Board and the Advisory Board of the Climate Technology Centre and Network.
• Oxford Seminars Presentations
• Meeting Report
Crowdfunding for Climate Change
This month, the first Forum of the Standing Committee on Finance was held in Barcelona. Present were Konrad von Ritter and Diann Black-Layne who presented the draft of the new ecbi policy brief 'Crowdfunding for Climate Change: a new source of finance for climate action at the local level?'. • Policy Brief
ecbi Annual Report 2012/13
The 2012/13 ecbi Annual Report highlights our efforts over the past year to strengthen capacity and trust between North-South, and South-South positions in the emerging climate change regime. Highlights include the 2012 Bonn Seminar, 2012 Fellowship Colloquium and Oxford Seminar and the continued growth of the Finance Circle meetings and Policy Analysis Programme. The ecbi also welcomed a new member organization, the Legal Response Initiative (LRI), which provides free legal advice to poor developing countries and civil society observers in connection with the international climate negotiations.• Annual Report 2012/13
Least Developed, Most Vulnerable: Climate Finance Promises for LDCs
This paper includes a systematic review of the reports filed to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2012 of the nations that promised to provide this US$ 30 billion in FSF over the period. Expanding upon our FSF assessments for 2010 and 2011 and our 2011 transparency scorecard, we assess whether wealthy nations transparently contributed a fair-share of the US$ 30 billion pledge, while balancing adaptation and mitigation funding, sourcing funds through UNFCCC channels, and without reverting to debt- inducing loans in the place of grants. Particular attention is paid to the worldís 48 Least Developed Countries (LDCs), given their heightened vulnerability. • Policy Brief
The 2015 Climate Agreement: Lessons from the Bali Road Map
A new climate agreement is expected to be negotiated by 2015 under the climate convention's Ad-Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP), or Durban Platform. The Platform provides a unique opportunity to plan holistically on a range of important issues including mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology development and transfer, transparency of action and support and capacity‐building. This paper draws on lessons from the concluded Bali Road Map negotiations to reflect on possible approaches to commitments in the 2015 agreement and its legal form, and how these two elements could impact the overall effectiveness of the future climate regime. The paper also examines the shift from a ëtop-downí approach to commitments, to a ëpledge and reviewí approach, and the seemingly paradoxical relationship between the nature of commitments and the effectiveness of the regime. • Policy Brief
ecbi Finance Circle Meets in Berlin
On March 11th, the Finance Circle met in Berlin attended by the two SCF Co-chairs (Antigua & Barbuda, and Switzerland), four SCF members (Australia, Belgium, Norway, and US), a GCFB alternate member (US), and representatives of five GCFB members/alternates (Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, and Norway). For a brief summary of the meeting, please refer to the report below.• Meeting Report
The Oxford Approach: Operationalising 'Respective Capabilities'
This ecbi Policy Brief by Benito Müller & Lavan Mahadeva serves as summary for policy makers of a technical report by the same authors published by the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, available at the link below.• OIES: The Oxford Approach
Whether or not the regime emerging from the current negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will be based on an explicit cost/burden sharing formula, the debate about (implied) costs/burdens will be central. Such a debate cannot be genuinely meaningful in the absence of an acceptable operationalisation of Article 3.1 in general, and of the concept of ërespective capabilityí in particular.
The Brief proposes a measure for national 'differentiated economic capabilities ('ability to pay') as integral part of an operationalisation. The primary purpose of the measure is to define or assess climate change cost/burden sharing (schemes). To illustrate the potential use of this methodology the Brief considers two examples: assessing the fairness of a given cost distribution; and developing a (rule-based) 'graduation scheme' regarding obligations to pay.
• Policy Brief
ecbi Finance Circle meets in Doha
A meeting of the Finance Circle took place on December 4, 2012, during the second week of COP 18 at Doha. The meeting was shortened to accommodate participantsí schedule commitments in the negotiations. Discussions focused on how the FC could continue to serve as a useful platform for the negotiators, particularly at this stage when the negotiations on finance have increased in complexity, crucial importance and presence throughout several bodies of the UNFCCC.• Meeting Report
Inaugural Meeting of the UNFCCC Standing Committee on Finance
Photo Courtesy of Hyunwoo Kim/UNFCCC
On the 6th of September 2012, two years and one week after it was conceived during the 2010 ecbi Fellowships in Oxford, the Standing Committee had its formal inaugurating meeting in Bangkok, Thailand. In order to celebrate this significant event, and to provide a chance for its members to interact with the Standing Committee, the ecbi Finance Circle hosted a reception for the Standing Committee on 5 September in the Amari Watergate Hotel in Bangkok. The ecbi director - who is advising Edith Kasajja, the LDC SC member from Uganda - opened the meeting with a few introductory remarks on the nature and the priorities of the Standing Committee (speaking notes appended), and he handed out the 'birth certificate' of the Standing Committee, the proposal by the 2010 ecbi Fellows to create 'a standing committee to provide support to the COP in exercising its functions with respect to the Financial Mechanism of the UNFCCC' (also appended). The reception was also attended by Mr Pa Ousman Jarju, LDC Group Chair, and Mr Prakash Mathema, LDC Group Chair elect.• Participants of SG.1 (photo courtesy of Hyunwoo Kim/UNFCCC)
• LDC Chair and Chair-elect
• Speaking Notes
• Fellows Finance Architecture Proposal
LDC/ecbi Finance Circle Reception for Green Climate Fund Board
On 22 August 2012, the Green Climate Fund Board formally held its constitutive meeting in Geneva, Switzerland. Following a tradition established by the ecbi in the context of the Adaptation Fund Board and the Transitional Committee, the ecbi Finance Circle organized a reception for the GCF Board on 24 August, which was co-hosted by Mr David Kaluba, LDC member of the GCFB. After a short welcome by Mr Kaluba, Benito Müller (ecbi director, and adviser to the LDC member) gave a presentation on ìThe importance of involving stakeholders in the GCFî.• Speaking Notes and Background Material
ecbi Fellowship and Oxford Seminar 2012
The eight annual round of the ecbi Oxford Fellowships and Seminar took place from 8-14 July 2012, and was attended by 12 Fellows from developing countries (LDC, AOSIS, ALBA, Africa, BASIC) and 14 Seminar participants from Europe and the European Commission. The discussion focused on the implementation of the Bali Road Map; the post-2020 regime under the Durban Platform on Enhanced Action, in particular on CBDR and RC; long-term finance, in particular the use of innovative sources of finance; and support for adaptation pre-2020, in particular NAPAs and NAPs.• List of Fellows Colloquium Presentations
ï Feedback from the Seminars
• Report & List of Seminar Presentations
The Seventh ecbi Bonn Seminar
On 20 May 2012, the seventh annual ecbi Bonn Seminar was held in the Altes Rathaus of Bonn Germany. The discussion focused on CBDR/RC and equity on the ADP, the future of the Kyoto Protocol (architecture) and long-term finance. A summary of the meeting can be found at the link below.• Meeting Report (English)
ecbi Finance Circle meets in Bonn
On 19 May 2012 the ecbi Finance Circle held a meeting during the UNFCCC Climate change Conference in Bonn, Germany. The discussions focused on two key areas: long-term finance and the work programme of the Standing Committee. A summary of the meeting can be found at the link below.• Meeting Flyer (English)
ecbi Annual Report 2011/12
The 2011/12 ecbi Annual Report highlights our efforts over the past year to strengthen capacity and trust between North-South, and South-South positions in the emerging climate change regime. This is achieved through three programme areas: the trust-building Fellowship Programme with an informal (high-level) exchange of views and ideas; the Workshop Programme to enhance negotiating skills and capacity-building; and the Policy Analysis Programme to provide the policy analyses necessary for successful negotiations. Over the past 12 months, ecbi has hosted 11 workshops, seminars, ad hoc meetings worldwide with 276 participants from developing and developed countries. The feedback has been strong and progress demonstrated, particularly with regard of climate finance. We look forward to the year ahead and the establishment of two new ecbi Circles: one on the Durban Platform and a second communications platform for the LDC Group.• Low Resolution image
• High Resolution image
ecbi Seminar on COP 17 outcomes for Africa Group Negotiators
Africa Group Negotiators (AGN) met in Paris, France on 29th and 30th March 2012 to discuss the outcomes of the 17th Conference of the Parties (COP17) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The workshop was convened by Mr Emmanuel Dlamini, chair of the Africa group, and was attended by 20 negotiators from 14 countries including Mr Pa Ousman Jarju, chair of the least developed countries (LDC) group, to help build links between the two groups. Other participants included key coordinators of the Africa group, representatives from the LDC group, the chair of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA), the chair of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA), the legal adviser to the Africa group and two former chairs of the Africa group.• Background Paper
Discussions considered the Durban outcomes in terms of the legal implications, the Africa group perspective, political realities, the Kyoto Protocol and the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP). A background paper on ëDurban Outcomes: An Africa Group Perspectiveí was presented in draft format to be finalised taking into account the inputs of the seminar participants.
The seminar provided a timely opportunity for participants to share their expertise and build relationships, and their feedback underscored its utility as a pertinent forum for learning and debate. It was organised with support from the Institute for Sustainable Development and international Relations (IDDRI).
• Seminar Report
ecbi in Durban
ecbi organized a Finance Circle meeting on 30 November 2011 in Durban, South Africa. Ten participants from the US, Venezuela, Georgia, Switzerland, Cuba, Ireland, Germany, Ireland, and the European Commission attended.
The meeting took place briefly after the US and Venezuela had announced to the Conference of Parties (COP) that they were unhappy with the draft Instrument of the Green Climate Fund, and would like to make changes. The discussion at the ecbi Finance Circle meeting therefore centred around the reasons for the US and Venezuelaís discontent, and how to take the process forward. (Later at the COP, both countries agreed not to reopen negotiations on the text of the Instrument, but deal with they objections through a covering COP deicison).
ecbi also provided support for the LDC delegation as part of a framework agreement between the Climate and Development Network (CDKN) and the LDC Chair, Pa Ousman Jarju from The Gambia. Achala Chandani, Head of the ecbi Workshops Programme, assisted Pa (ecbi Fellow) as a member of the Gambian delegation. ecbi Director Benito Müller and Saleemul Huq (ecbi Executive Committee) were Advisors to the LDC Chair. Anju Sharma, Head of ecbi Policy Analysis and Publication Unit, managed the production of policy and legal briefs requested by the LDC Chair and produced by IIED, OCP and FIELD.
2011 ecbi Pre-COP Meeting of LDC Coordinators, Core Team Members and Advisors
Least developed country (LDC) coordinators, core team members and advisors met in Durban, South Africa, on 26th November 2011 to discuss the LDC strategy in advance of the 17th Conference of the Parties (COP17). Thirty negotiators and representatives from line ministries from 15 countries were in attendance. The meeting was chaired by Mr Pa Ousman Jarju, Chair of the LDC Group, and included presentations by Climate Analytics on Science Aspects of the 2?C and 1.5?C Global Goals in the Cancún Agreements and on the Periodic Review.
Passing of Mr. Mama Konaté - SBSTA Chair/Co-Chair of the ecbi Steering Committee
It is with the deepest sadness and shock that we have learned of the untimely passing of Mama Konaté, former Co-Chair of the ecbi Steering Committee. Mama was Chair of the UNFCCC Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technical Advice, and former Chair of the LDC Group and the Expert Group on Technology Transfer.• Page of Condolences
As mentioned in the announcement by the Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC Secretariat, Mama has been one of the most active, dedicated and prominent leaders of the international climate change negotiations. But he was also instrumental in setting up the ecbi, which owes an enormous depth of gratitude for his unwavering support and guidance. He will be sorely missed by all of us.
On behalf of the ecbi, I would like to express our heartfelt condolences to his family and friends and assure them that his friendship and support will not be forgotten.
In deep sorrow
Director of the ecbi
2011 ecbi Regional Workshop for East-Southern African & South Asian Negotiators
The 2011 regional workshop for East and Southern African and South Asian countries took place in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from 31 October to 1 November. It was attended by roughly 30 negotiators and representatives from line ministries from 17 countries. • Workshop Report
Presentations and discussions included the LDC strategy in the UNFCCC negotiations by the Chair of the LDC Group. Other themes addressed were finance, mitigation, adaptation and legal issues. The workshop provided a timely opportunity for participants to develop and align around LDC key messages for COP17 in Durban. Participant feedback underscored the value of these workshops as a forum for sharing different national views and experience and to learn from more experienced negotiators. The workshop received national press coverage from the Citizen and the Guardian.
The workshop was organised with the support of the Government of Tanzania and Environmental Protection and Management Services (EPMS).
• The Citizen Article
• The Guardian Article
Third Meeting of ecbi Finance Circle and Transitional Committee Members
Held in Geneva on 10 September 2011 in conjunction with the third meeting of the Transitional Committee, the ecbi Finance Circle meeting was attended by 24 participants from developed and developing countries, under the theme of 'enhanced direct access'. It began with three introductory presentations: Katja Roll gave an introduction to the Country Coordination Mechanism of the Global Fund. This was followed by an introduction to the National Climate Finance Institutions Support Programme, presented by Clifford Polycarp. ecbi Director Benito Müller concluded with a proposal of definitions for direct access based on the ones adopted by the Adaptation Fund Board.• Enhanced Direct Access
ecbi Fellowship and Oxford Seminar 2011
At the 2011 ecbi Fellowship and Seminar held in early September, senior developing country negotiators and their European colleagues discussed the importance of a mutually agreeable action 'sequence', in order to overcome the lack of trust on both sides. An innovative 'Annex C' to the Kyoto Protocol was discussed as a way of addressing concerns on both sides.• Plan C: The Role of the Kyoto Protocol in a Legally Binding Outcome
• Seminar Report (English)
2011 Regional ecbi Workshop for West Africa
The 2011 regional workshop for West Africa took place in Dakar, Senegal from 18th-19th August. It was attended by around thirty negotiators, parliamentarians, and representatives from line Ministries (Finance, Planning and Environment) from thirteen West and Central African countries. • Workshop Report (English)
Presentations and discussions included the LDC strategy in the UNFCCC negotiations by the Chair of the LDC Group and the Africa Group strategy in the negotiations by the Chair of the Africa Group. Other themes addressed were adaptation, mitigation, technology transfer, finance, gender, and legal issues. Breakout groups discussed and presented their expectations for Durban.
These regional workshop provided a friendly and open platform for different cohorts to discuss strategies for effective decision-making at the international level, and the translation and implementation of those decisions to the national and ground level. It was also an opportunity for each group to understand the technicality and complicated nature of international negotiations and what each groupís role could be for fair and equitable outcomes at the global level.
The workshop was organised with the support of the Government of Senegal and ENDA.
Operationalizing the Standing Committee
At Cancún, the COP decided to establish a Standing Committee to assist it in exercising its functions with respect to the Financial Mechanism of the Convention. But it left open how exactly this should be done. The ecbi Policy Brief by Farrukh Khan and Benito Müller begins by looking at the COP functions which the Standing Committee is meant to assist considering, in particular, how such assistance could enhance the implementation of the Financial Mechanism. Based on this analysis, the brief puts forward detailed recommendations concerning the functions and the form of the Standing Committee.• Policy Brief (English)
Second Meeting of Finance Circle and Transitional Committee Members
Attending members of the Transitional Committee discussed the merits and demerits of 'thematic windows" under the Green Climate Fund (GCF) at the second meeting of the ecbi Finance Circle. Held on 13 July 2011 in Tokyo, the meeting was attended by 22 participants from developed and developing countries. ecbi Director Benito Müller said thematic windows should be treated with caution, particularly if contributions are to be earmarked for specific windows (see Speaking Notes). If inevitable, they should take the form of budget lines, rather than institutional sub-entities of the GCF.• Speaking Notes
The sixth ecbi Bonn Seminar
The sixth ecbi Bonn Seminar was held in June, 2011. There they discussed the importance of ownership - over the process of designing the Green Climate Fund; the form and function of the Steering Committee; and sources of long term finance.• Bonn Seminar Report (English)
ecbi Annual Report 2010/2011
This ecbi Annual Report summarises an important period in the history of the UN climate negotiations, including the run-up and aftermath of the Copenhagen Conference; and preparations for the landmark Cancún Conference. The ecbi organised 14 events over the last 12 months, attended by approximately 290 participants - making this one of our busiest years. In addition to reports of these events, there is evidence to show that that ecbi activities have had direct and positive impacts on the international negotiations, the negotiating capacity of countries and regions, and the capacity of individual negotiators. • Annual Report
First Meeting of Finance Circle and Transitional Committee Members
The UNFCCC Transitional Committee for designing the Green Climate Fund met for its inaugural session in Mexico City on 28-9 April 2011. On the first evening 26 members of the TC and the ecbi Finance Circle met for informal exchanges of views and opinions about their forthcoming work. The aim of the meeting was to bring together members from as diverse a background as possible, such as (picture: from left to right): US, Japan, Singapore, Philippines and Venezuela.• Speaking Notes by Benito M¸ller
ecbi Finance Circle meets in Bangkok
The ecbi Finance Circle held a meeting on Monday 4 April during the AWG session in Bangkok. There were 21 participants from Australia, Cuba, DR Congo, Egypt, European Commission, Georgia, Germany, India, Ireland, Malawi, Norway, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, UNFCCC , Zambi. See attached document for notes from the meeting.• Meeting Notes
Fifth and sixth ecbi Finance Circle Meeting in Cancún
The fifth ecbi Finance Circle took place on Monday 11 November in the offices of the EU Presidency at the Moon Palace conference centre with 20 participants from 14 delegations (Australia, Belgium/EU Presidency, Canada, Ecuador, European Commission, Georgia, Germany, Netherlands, Mexico, Slovenia, Sweden, UAE, UK, and US). The discussion focused on the idea of a Transitional Expert Panel put forward in an ecbi Policy Brief , and in a draft article on How to establish the new climate fund . The discussion was, as is usual for FC meetings, very open and collegiate. • Climate Finance after Tianjin: How to reach a deal at Cancún?
Following the request of Mexican and US participants, a follow-up meeting of the FC was held at the beginning of the second week with 20 participants from 17 delegations (Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Denmark, EC, Ecuador, Egypt, Georgia, Germany, Indonesia, Ireland, Mexico, Pakistan, Spain, UK, and US). Among the issues that were discussed in that meeting were the ideas of having the UNFCCC Executive Secretary convene the design process for the new fund, and of having relevant agencies second staff to the UNFCCC Secretariat to support that process, both of which ultimately reflected in the text of the Cancún Agreements (LCA, para. 110 and para. 111, respectively).
• Outreach Magazine
Pre-COP 16 Workshop for African LDC Negotiators
On 27th of November, the ecbi held its eighth Pre-COP workshop for African LDC Negotiators in Cancún, Mexico attended by 18 delegates representing Benin, Burundi, DRC, Ethiopia, Guinea, Lesotho, Mali, Senegal, Sudan and Togo. The Chair of the LDC Group-Bruno Sekoli-discussed the LDC strategy in the upcoming negotiations while the Chair of the Africa Group- Tosi Mpanu Mpanu- discussed the Africa Group strategy in the upcoming COP 16 negotiations. Other presentations were on adaptation, finance, mitigation, and legal issues followed by lively and interactive discussions.
Pre-COP 16 Workshop for South and South East Asian Negotiators
On 26th of November, the ecbi held its first Pre-COP workshop for South and South East Asian Negotiators in Cancún, Mexico attended by 20 delegates representing Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and Cambodia. The presentations were on adaptation, finance, loss and damage, and capacity building. Farrukh Khan, the Chair of the UN Adaptation Fund Board, gave a presentation on the recent developments under the Adaptation Fund. All the sessions were followed by lively and interactive discussions. The presentation will be made available on the ecbi website.• Workshop Report (English)
A successful outcome of COP 16 in Cancún as concerns climate finance?
This ecbi Policy Brief by Benito Müller looks at whether the progress and momentum of the LCA finance negotiations in Tianjin could be harnessed to bring about a successful outcome at Cancún, and what that would be. It envisages a decision to design an agreed voluntary reporting framework for fast start funding. A successful outcome for longer-term finance, it is suggested, would be a package of decisions to operationalise the new Global Climate Fund and the new Standing Committee on Finance, together with a decision to agree on a medium term revenue schedule for the new fund for 2012-2020.• Policy Brief (English)
New Policy Report on staffing requirements for managing climate finance
David Ciplet, Benito Müller, and J. Timmons Roberts address the question of whether it is possible to give some estimate of how many people it would need to manage the sorts of sums currently talked about with regards to longer-term climate finance. The paper does not aim to establish a universal correlation of staff per unit of funding but simply a lower-bound estimate. It concludes that given the current funding portfolios and management activities (in ODA), it takes at least 250 people to manage $1billion. This conservative estimate simply reflects the fact that managing funds properly requires people. The key message of the paper is that the only way to do so effectively, efficiently, and at scale is to delegate as much as possible to recipient countries.• Report (English)
New Policy Report on National Funding Entities
Luis Gomez-Echeverri presents a new report on National Funding Entities (NFEs) in the lead-up to Cancún this December. National Funding Entities have sprung up in twelve countries, with more currently in the pipeline, to push forward climate change action, capture and manage funding from international and national sources, and guarantee that all actions are mainstreamed into existing development strategies. These new institutions have been built in different forms with a diverse range of objectives, funding and governance strategies; but all provide experience and lessons for countries seeking to establish their own. This Policy Report provides background information on these NFEs to inform the negotiations. It is part of a series of ecbi and OIES publications on the Reformed Finance Mechanism, most specifically on the case for devolution of funding decisions to the national level.• Full Policy Report (English)
Talks on finance in Beijing and New York
After attending the Tianjin climate change conference, the ecbi director visited Beijing on the invitation of Councillor Yi Xianliang (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ecbi Fellow) where he had talks with Finance Ministry officials and gave a lecture at Tsinghua University. He then visited the UN Headquarters in New York on the invitation of Ambassador Manjeev Puri (DPR of India, ecbi Fellow) and met individually senior officials from the missions Argentina (forthcoming Chair of G77), Bolivia, Nicaragua, and Antigua and Barbuda (Chair AWG-KP). He also spoke to a number of AOSIS representatives at a meeting convened for this purpose by the PR of Barbados and chaired the PR of Grenada (Chair of AOSIS).• policy report
Fourth Meeting of the Finance Circle
On 7 October, the ecbi Finance Circle held its fourth meeting during the climate change conference in Tianjin, China, attended by delegates from 15 Parties. Farrukh Khan gave a brief presentation on the idea of a Standing Committee on Finance which had been adopted that day as G77 and China position. The question and answer session that followed was lively and very instructive, focussing on the functions which such committee would perform. The presentation is available on the ecbi website as part of the documentation associated with the 2010 Oxford Fellowships.• Presentation: Governance and Financial Mechanism (English)
ecbi Fellowship and Oxford Seminar 2010
The annual ecbi Fellowships and Oxford Seminar was held between August 25-31st amongst the distinguished colleges of Oxford University, UK. The Fellowships and Oxford Seminar form the core of the ecbi, building trust and knowledge between the ecbi Fellows (south-south trust building) and between the Fellows and their European counterparts (north-south trust building).• Seminar Report with Fellow's Finance Proposal
The proceedings began at Exeter College at the informal Fellowship Colloquium. Over three days, the Fellows exchanged views and shared experiences on topics chosen by them, along with invited experts. The closed sessions provide a frank and informal dialogue to build trust and exchange procedural and institutional knowledge amongst the fellows. The Colloquium also established the topics to be discussed in the Oxford Seminar.
The Fellows were then joined by government representatives from European Partner countries and the European Commission. It was held at the Oxford Union and the closed sessions provided an opportunity to discuss stumbling blocks to the UNFCCC negotiations in a non-confrontational environment. The Fellows raised many procedural and institutional issues of importance surrounding the negotiations. Along with this, the European partners were able to better understand the situation of their developing country colleagues.
The developing country Fellows put forward the idea of a standing Finance Committee of the COP, to provide support to the COP in exercising its functions with respect to the Financial Mechanism (FM) of the UNFCCC, and to carry out any other task related to climate finance the COP chooses to assign. This was subsequently presented by one of them at the Geneva Dialogue on Climate Finance.
• Presentation to the Geneva Dialogue on Climate Finance
Finance Circle Meeting August 2010
The third meeting of the ecbi Finance Circle was held on August 2nd 2010 at the Hotel Maritim in Bonn attended by eighteen negotiators from thirteen countries. The meeting began with a short presentation of a draft ecbi Policy Brief on 'Administering New and Additional Climate Finance' and subsequently focused mainly on political functions to be carried out under the FM and the nature of a Finance Board of the FM.• Political Functions under FM
West Africa Regional Workshop Dakar July 2010
The francophone regional workshop for the countries of West Africa was held in Dakar, Senegal, in July 2010. It proved to be the largest group held for the ecbi, with more than 45 participants including UNFCCC negotiators, parliamentarians and representatives from ministries of finance covering 14 countries.• Workshop Report
Discussions centred on the Copenhagen Accord, Africa strategy, mitigation, adaptation, finance, legal issues, and technology transfer. Eight briefing papers were also presented, and participants visited the CSE, the first NIE of the Adaptation Fund Board.
A welcomed outcome of the workshop was the Dakar Resolution. The honourable members of the parliaments initiated this resolution, and both the French and English version will be available on the ecbi website.
L'atelier régional francophone pour l'Afrique de l'Ouest s'est tenu - Dakar au Sénégal en juillet 2010. Cet atelier ECBI est le plus important en nombre de participants qui se soit tenu. Il a, en effet, recueilli la participation de 45 personnes provenant de 14 pays d'Afrique de l'ouest et du centre: les négociateurs - La CCNUCC, des parlementaires des pays concernés et des représentants des Ministères des finances.
Les débats ont principalement portés sur l'Accord de Copenhague, la Stratégie CC de l'Afrique, l'Atténuation, l'Adaptation, les Financements, les questions Ègales et le Transfert de Technologies. Huit communications ont été présentées et une réunion a été organisé pour les participants au Centre de Suivi Ecologique du Sénégal, première Entité Nationale de Mise en oeuvre sous le Fonds d'Adaptation.
Un des principaux résultats de cet atelier a été la Résolution de Dakar. Les Honorables parlementaires présents - l'atelier ont initié cette résolution et les versions Francaise et Anglaise de cette résolution sont disponibles sur le site web de ecbi.
The Dakar Resolution came from the ecbi West Africa Regional Workshop, held in July 2010, Senegal. It was prepared and signed by the Honourable parliamentarians who attended the workshop. The English translation is also available on the ecbi website.• Dakar Resolution (French)
La Résolution de Dakar a ètè produite lors de l'atelier règional ecbi pour l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Elle a ètè préparée et signée par les Honorables parlementaires ayant participé á l'atelier ECBI de Dakar. La version complète en Français/Anglais de cette résolution est disponible sur le site web de ecbi.
• Dakar Resolution (English)
Finance Circle Meeting Bonn June 2010
On June 6th 2010, the second meeting of the Finance Circle was held in Bonn, Germany. Twenty-one participants attended including those from Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, DRC, EC, Egypt, Indonesia, Gambia, Georgia, Pakistan, Philipines, Poland, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sweden, UK, and the USA.• Finance Circle Bonn June 2010
The focus of the discussion was on the "recipient end‟ of the financial architecture, i.e. the elements of a climate finance regime that could or should be located in the recipient countries. Particular attention was given to the idea of National Funding Entities, as exemplified in the newly established Bangladesh multi donor trust fund (Bangladesh Climate Change Resilience Fund ñ BCCRF), and how a devolution of decision making to such national entities could help not only in overcoming the ìproblem of administrative sizeî but also be the catalyst in mainstreaming climate change into domestic policies.
Bonn Seminar June 2010
The ecbi Bonn Seminar was held in June 2010 at La Redoute in Bonn/Bad Godesberg.• Bonn Seminar Report
ecbi Annual Report 2009/10
The ecbi Annual Report summarises activities undertaken in the period April 2009 to March 2010, carried out by the Fellowship Programme and the Workshop Programme of the ecbi, as well as common activities.• ecbi Annual Report 2009/10
Unilateral Declarations: The Missing Legal Link in the Bali Action Plan
The legal format of the outcome of the current twin-track negotiations is one of the most pressing problems to be resolved in the run-up to the next UN climate change conference in Cancún, Mexico. This ecbi Policy Brief puts forward a proposal of how an outcome could be made legally binding for all key Parties without having to introduce a new global treaty.• Document (english)
Workshop in Abuja, Nigeria
On 24 and 25 March of this year, the ecbi Workshop Programme helped facilitate a national-level workshop in Abuja, Nigeria, for government officials involved in the international climate change negotiations. The workshop was conducted by representatives from the Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (FIELD) and the Verification Research, Training and Information Centre (VERTIC). The first day of the workshop was spent updating participants on the state of play of the climate change negotiations after the Copenhagen climate change talks. On day two the negotiators took part in a full day negotiation simulation exercise on the topic of finance after Copenhagen. The workshop was funded by the UK Department for International Development (DfID.) The UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) in Abuja acted as host.
Adaptation Fund Board, Bonn. Dinner discussion in La Redoutte
On the 23 March 2010 the ecbi organized a dinner discussion for members of the Adaptation Fund Board that met for the 9th time in Bonn, Germany. At the 9th meeting of the AF Board, first National Implementing Entity (NIE) was accredited by the Board based on the recommendation by the Accreditation Panel. For the first time in the history of international climate policy, direct access for developing countries becomes operational. Senegali institution, The Centre de Suivi Ecologique (CSE) is this first NIE which can now receive directly funds from the Adaptation Fund Board when good projects are submitted. The Board has also accredited two multilateral implementing entities (MIE): UNDP and World Bank, offering developing countries who do not have yet a National Implementing Entity chose to go through an alternative option when apply for funding.
ecbi Regional Workshop for Latin America 2010
The second ecbi workshop was held in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, from the 7th to the 9th of February of 2010, at the Guembe ecological sanctuary. Participants from twelve Latin American countries came together to discuss the outcome of the COP 15, and to exchange ideas and perspectives over the future of the negotiationg process.• Workshop Report
Financing Clean Energy in Developing Countries
Co-hosted by the World Economic Forum Climate Change Initiative and the European Capacity Building Initiative, the dinner brought together a small group of climate negotiators, public and private sector professionals on 1 November 2009 to discuss the the issue of private secor financing for climate change activities in developing countries.• Invitation
2009 ecbi Oxford Fellowships and Seminar
2009 ecbi Fellows
'This year the ecbi Oxford Fellowships were housed in Magdalen College Oxford, from 30st August to 5th September 2009, with participation from Brazil, China, the Gambia, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Lesotho, Maldives, Mexico, South Africa. The ecbi Oxford Seminar was held in the second half of the week at Oxford Town Hall and was attended by the developing country Fellows European colleagues from Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, and Portugal. The report of this meeting will be published soon.'• Seminar Report
ecbi Policy Brief concerning Key Issues on Governance of Climate Change Finance
Based on the proceedings of the ecbi meeting on 9 August 2009 at La Redoute in Bonn, a new ecbi Policy Brief concerning Key Issues on Governance of Climate Change Finance has been published, together with written answers by the UK participants to the questions put by Anders Wijkman, the moderator of the meeting.• ecbi Policy Brief
2009 Regional Workshop for East and Southern Africa in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
The 2009 ecbi Regional Workshop for East and Southern Africa in Ethiopia was held at Addis Ababa Hilton hotel from 18 to 20 August. The workshop was attended by participants from Botswana, Comoros, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. The workshop report will be published soon. •
• Workshop flyer
ecbi in Latin America
The first ecbi Regional Workshop for Latin America was held at the Plaza Hotel in La Paz, Bolivia, from 17 to 19 of August. The workshop was attended by participants from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Mexico,Paraguay,Uruguay,Venezuela, Panama and Peru. The workshop report and a photo album to be published soon.• Workshop flyer (Spanish)
Afrique de L'Ouest 2009. Atelier Regional Francophone
Les travaux de l'atelier régional 2009 de renforcement des capacités sur les changements climatiques pour les pays francophones d'Afrique de l'ouest se sont déroulés du 21 au 23 juillet 2009 - Dakar au Sénégal. L'atelier a regroupé les points focaux de la Convention Cadre des Nations Unies sur les Changements Climatiques (CCNUCC) ainsi que les représentants des ministères de l'environnement et des finances et ou du plan de 13 pays francophones d'Afrique de l'ouest : Bénin, Burkina Faso, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Gabon, Gambie, Guinée, Guinée Bissau, Mali, Mauritanie, Niger, Togo et Sénégal. L'atelier a regroupé 30 participants et a été animé par les représentants de l'ECBI, de l'IIED et du Oxford Climate Policy.• Workshop flyer (French)
Taxe sur le transport aÈrien de passagers en faveur de líadaptation (IAPAL)
Suite - l'exemple très réussi de la taxe de solidarité du Groupe pilote francais afin de lutter contre le VIH/SIDA, le Groupe des PMA propose une taxe de solidarité en faveur de l'adaptation sur les passagers aériens internationaux, pour fournir un financement adapté - des activités d'adaptation dans les pays et les communautés les plus pauvres et les plus vulnérables.• IAPAL proposition
Le mécanisme financier restructuré de la CCNUCC. Architecture at gouvernance
Le consensus sur une action visant aborder les changements climatiques repose sur le principe des responsabilites communes mais differences et sur les obligations et engagements enumeres - Article 4 de la Convention cadre des Nations Unies sur les Changements Climatiques (CCNUCC). • note de politique gÈnÈrale
2009 Bonn Seminar on Future Financial Architecture & Governance
This ecbi Policy Brief is based on the presentations and discussion at the 2009 round of the annual ecbi Bonn Seminars held on 7 June 2009 at La Redoute in Bonn/Bad Godesberg, during the sixth session of the Ad-hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action• ecbi Policy Brief
Unlike previous meetings, this event was focused on a single theme, namely the future of climate change finance, with a focus on institutional and governance issues. For this reason it was also decided to replace the usual proceedings with a more analytic policy brief, based also on the draft negotiating text on enhanced action on the provision of financial resources and investment that emerged from the negotiations.
The ecbi Annual Report 2008/2009
The ecbi Annual report summarizes activities undertaken in period April 2008 to March2009, carried out by the Fellowship Programme and the Workshop Programme of the ecbi. This report is divided into three sections. The first section provides an overview of all major capacity and trust-building activities. The second section summarizes the ecbi policy briefs and the content of the ecbi website.• ecbi Annual Report 2008/09
ecbi Policy Brief on the LDC IAPAL Proposal
International Air Passenger Adaptation Levy (IAPAL): A proposal by the Group of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) within the framework of the Bali Action Plan, submitted to the UNFCCC AWC-LCA on 12 December 2008; with Thirteen Questions and Answers compiled by Benito Müller• IAPAL proposal
• in French:
ecbi Policy Briefs on the UNFCCC financial mechanism
Two policy briefs detailing, on the one hand the history of the current financial mechanism, and suggesting, on the other a Reformed Financial Mechanism for the post Copenhagen period by Benito Müller and Luis Gomez-Echeverri are available for downloading.• Financial Mechanism, History
• Reformed Financial Mechanism
LDC Group Strategy Meeting
Preparing for the seventh session of the AWG-KP and fifth session of the AWG-LCA taking place from Sunday 29 March to Wednesday 8 April 2009 in Bonn, the ecbi gathered together a number of delegates from least developing countries for some strategic discussions. This capacity utilization initiative is crucial for the preparation of the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen. The ecbi was also able to sponsor the attendance of Ms Kali Litsabako as member of the Lesotho delegation and legal adviser to the LDC Chair., and to fund an ecbi Policy Report on the agenda of the meeting for LDC delegates, prepared by FIELD.
Adaptation Fund Board: First Chair's dinner (hosted by ecbi)
The Adaptation Fund Board have met for the fifth time in Bonn Germany, March 24-27, 2009. The ecbi, hosted a first Chairs’s Dinner attended by a number of Board members from developing and developed countries. This trust building initiative is important to help members to build mutual understanding and to know each other. The Adaptation Fund has been established under the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries.
Letter of appreciation of outgoing Adaptation fund board Chair
Mr. Richard Muyungi, former Chair of the AF Board
On behalf of the Adaptation Fund Board, Mr. Muyungi, expresses his appreciation for the support the ecbi has given him as Chair of the Adaptation Fund Board, and the Board in general, over the past year. He also mentions that ecbi dinners have proven to be very useful in building the nec essary trust between the AFB members.• letter of appreciation, AF
the ecbi Adaptation Fund Board Dinner
15th of December 2008. The ecbi Fellowship Programme organised a dinner for a number of developing country and European Board members as part of the ecbi trust building activities on the evening of the first day of the third meeting of the Adaptation Fund Board in Bonn/Germany.
ecbi pre-COP14 workshop in Poznan, Poland
The ecbi brought together UN climate change delegates from 12 countries to strengthen the capacity of Least Developed Countries to negotiate and implement the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol and to engage in a number of trust-building activities.
The ecbi Pre-COP Workshop was held in Poznan, Poland
the venue of the 2008 UN Climate Change Conference.
ATELIER REGIONAL FRANCOPHONE ecbi POUR L’AFRIQUE DE L’OUEST EN 2008
Les travaux de l'atelier régional 2008 de renforcement des capacités sur les changements climatiques pour les pays francophones d'Afrique de l'Ouest se sont déroulés du 28 au 30 octobre 2008 - Conakry (Guinée). L'atelier a regroupé les points focaux de la Convention Cadre des Nations Unies sur les Changements Climatiques (CCNUCC), ainsi que des représentants des Ministeres chargés des Finances et/ou du Plan venus de 13 pays africains: Bénin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Gabon, Gambie, Guinée, Guinée- Bissau, Mali, Mauritanie, Niger, Sénégal, Tchad et Togo. Il y avait au total 22 participants. • Workshop flyer (French)
ecbi Regional Workshop for East and Southern Africa, Gaborone, Botswana
Delegates from Botswana, Comoros, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Sudan, Uganda, Zambia participated in this 3 day workshop held from the 23 to 25 of September 2008 in Gaborone, Botswana Ministry of Environment, Wildlife & Tourism. The aim of the workshop was to build sustained capacity in support of international climate change negotiations. • Picasa album
The Regional workshop was inaugurated by Mr Mathias Chakalisa, Permanent Secretary of Ministry of Environment, Wildlife & Tourism. A link to the photo album is below.
• Workshop flyer
ecbi Fellowships and Oxford Seminar 2008
The ecbi Oxford Seminar (part of the ecbi Fellowships) is an annual three day event where senior developing country UN climate change negotiators meet their European colleagues to discuss key issues concerning the ongoing UN climate change negotiations. The 2008 Oxford Seminar was held at Oxford Town Hall, from 3th September to 5th September. The gathering was attended by 45 delegates from 23 countries. To access the ecbi Oxford Fellowships& Seminar report and photo album please click on links below. • Fellowships photo album
• Fellowships Report
ecbi Fellowships 2008 in Christ Church College, Oxford
The Fellowships will begin with the Fellowship Colloquium (1–3 Sept) for Fellows and invited experts only, where the Fellows will be given a chance to exchange views among themselves, to discuss issues chosen by them with the invited experts, and to prepare for the visit of their European Colleagues during the subsequent (3–6 Sept.) Oxford Seminar with high-level government representatives from the participating European Partner countries as well as the European Commission.
The Fellowships Programme – typically for higher-level government officials/civil servants (‘decision makers’) who play a leading role in the UNFCCC process both domestically and internationally – lies at the heart of the ecbi.
Its primary purpose is to build trust and exchange procedural and institutional knowledge both among the Fellows (‘South-South trust-building’), and between them and their European colleagues (‘North-South trustbuilding’).
The venue for the Fellowships will this year be Christ Church College, founded in 1546 by King Henry VIII,
and alma mater of many famous pupils and dons such as the philosopher John Locke, and the mathematician
The Reverend Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known under his pen name ‘Lewis Carroll, who placed
Alice’s Wonderland in the College’s Fellows Garden.
Regional Workshop for South and South East Asia, Maldives
Delegates from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Vietnam participated in this 3 day workshop held from the 12 to 14 of August 2008 in Male. The Workshop was organized jointly by the Ministry of Environment of Maldives and the ecbi. The aim of the workshop is to build sustained capacity in support of international climate change negotiations. • Workshop Flyer
The Regional workshop was inaugurated by Mr. Abdullahi Majeed, Deputy Minister of Environment of Maldives. In the opening remarks he highlighted the importance of the workshop in climate negotiations, especially the most vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, namely for Least Developed Countries (LDC) and Small Island Developing States (SIDS).
ecbi dinner for members of the Adaptation Fund Board
16th of June 2008. The ecbi Fellowship Programme organised a final dinner for all of developing country and European Board members as part of the ecbi trust building activities on the evening of the first day of the second meeting of the Adaptation Fund Board in Bonn/Germany.
ecbi Bonn Seminar 2008
participants of the ecbi Bonn Seminar 2008
On the 8th June 2008, the ecbi Fellowship Programme held the third Bonn Seminar gathering together 56 delegates, during the intersessional meeting of the UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies in Bonn, Germany to maintaining and strengthening the momentum of the trust-building activities of the Oxford Fellowships - particularly the North-South component. Report is comming soon. • Workshop flyer
ecbi Annual Report 2007/08
The ecbi was launched in May 2005 during the 22nd Meeting of the UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies(SB) in Bonn. This is its third annual report. • annual report 2007/08
The impact of the ecbi on the international negotiations, although difficult to quantify, has been significant, particularly in the context of the Adaptation Fund negotiations.
An indication of the impact of the ecbi activities was the fact that three of the ecbi Fellows and two ecbi participants were selected for the Adaptation Fund Board, one of which subsequently elected as
its first Chair.
ecbi Dinner at the inaugural Adaptation Fund Board meeting
On the evening of the first day of the first meeting of the Adaptation Fund Board (26-28 March, Bonn/Germany), the ecbi Fellowship Programme organised a dinner for a number of developing country and European Board members as part of the ecbi trust building activities.
The dinner was also attended by a leading member of the World Bank Climate Investment Fund initiative, who informed the dinner guests about plans for a 'Pilot Programme on Climate Resilience'.
On the road to Bali: operationalising the Kyoto Protocol Adaptation Fund
ecbi Fellows 2007
Taking the time to get the governance structure of the Adaptation Fund right will be worth it in the long term, say five Oxford Fellows for 2007 - Enele Sopoaga (Tuvalu), Lydia Greyling (South Africa), David Lesolle (Botswana), Emily Massawa (Kenya) and JosÈ Miguez (Brazil), in an IIED/ecbi opinion piece on one of the key questions to be discussed in Bali, which expands on the piece written by the 2006 Fellows: Operationalising the Kyoto Protocol's Adaptation Fund - a new proposal.• 2006 IIED/ecbi opinion piece
• 2007 IIED/ecbi Opinion Piece
ecbi 2007 Pre-COP LDC Workshop
Paricipants of ecbi Pre-COP13 Workshop
The ecbi brought together UN climate change delegates from 22 countries to strengthen the capacity of Least Developed Countries to negotiate and implement the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol and to engage in a number of trust-building activities. • Flyer:
The ecbi Pre-COP Workshop was held in Nusa Dua/Bali, Indonesia the venue of the 2007 UN Climate Change Conference (COP13/MOP3)
ecbi side event at COP13-open to all
On the 5 December 2007 ecbi is organizing a side event at COP13,• Flyer
Bali, Indonesia, in the EU Pavilion, Nusa dua Beach Hotel, from 15:30-17:30.
The event will showcase the work of the ecbi carried out in 2007 and look forward to next year’s activities, with a particular view to get stakeholder feed-back on proposed extensions of the activities, such as a series of Regional Workshops for Latin America.
2007 Regional ecbi Workshop for South and Southeast Asia in Bangkok
Participants of Bangkok workshop
The Regional Workshop for South and Southeast Asia in Thailand brought together 22 delegates from several Asian countries to engage in a number of trust-building activities as well as ensuring a wider recognition of the issues related to climate change in their countries. • Workshop Flyer
The event has been hosted in the Asian Institute of Technology.
ATELIER REGIONAL FRANCOPHONE ecbi POUR L’AFRIQUE DE L’OUEST EN 2007
Les travaux de l’atelier rÈgional 2007 de renforcement des capacitÈs sur les changements climatiques pour les pays francophones d’Afrique de l’Ouest se sont dÈroulÈs du 15 au 17 octobre 2007 ‡ Dakar (SÈnÈgal). L’atelier a regroupÈ les points focaux de la Convention Cadre des Nations Unies sur les Changements Climatiques (CCNUCC), ainsi que des reprÈsentants des MinistËres chargÈs des Finances et/ou du Plan venus de 9 pays africains: BÈnin, Burkina Faso, CÙte d’Ivoire, Gambie, GuinÈe, GuinÈe- Bissau, Mali, Niger et SÈnÈgal. • Workshop flyer (French)
Il y avait au total 23 participants. Trois cadres de l’ecbi Ètaient l‡ pour animer les travaux. Les participants ont discutÈ des questions saillantes ‡ l’ordre du jour des rÈunions COP13 et COP/MOP3 devant se tenir en dÈcembre prochain.
Ils se sont notamment penchÈs sur divers aspects du renforcement des capacitÈs, dont le besoin se fait fort sentir dans la rÈgion.
2007 ecbi Regional Workshop for West Africa in Dakar
Participants of Dakar Workshop
The francophone regional workshop for the countries of West Africa was held in Dakar (Senegal) from 15 to 17 October 2007.
The workshop brought together the focal points to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), as well as representatives of ministries responsible for finances and/or planning from 9 African countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, CÙte d’Ivoire, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger and Senegal.
There were 23 participants in total. Three ecbi resource persons assisted with the workshop. The workshop discussed the key issues for the upcoming COP13 and COP/MOP3 meetings and focused in particular on the various aspects of capacity building, much needed in the region.
Third Regional Workshop for Eastern and Southern Africa in Bagomoyo, Tanzania
Tanzania regional workshop
The ecbi Regional Workshop for Eastern and Southern Africa in Bagomoyo brought together delegates from Botswana, the Comoros, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia between 24th and 26th of September 2007. • Workshop report
Many of the delegates came from ministries other than those for Environment, thus enlarging the scope of the discussions and ensuring a wider recognition of the issues related to climate change in their countries.
2007 Fellowships, Wadham College, Oxford
2007 Fellows at Wadham College, Oxford
The ECBI Oxford Fellowships 2007 brought together 14 Fellows, Senior Fellows, and Supernumerary Fellows from Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, China, Gabon, Guinea, Kenya, Mexico, South Africa, Tuvalu, Vietnam and negotiators from Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, Portugal,Spain and UK between 1 September and 8 September to engage in a number of trust-building activities.• Oxford Fellowships Flyer
2007 Francophone Fellows in Paris
Fellows in Paris
Fellows from Burkina Faso, Gabon, Guinea along with ecbi Director have visited French govenment agencies in Paris on 31 August 2007.
The meeting was facilitated by Mr. Nicolas Lambert from the French Foreign Office.
New ecbi Prospectus published
ecbi Prospectus (revised August 2007): The guide to ecbi Phase II (2008-12) activities, available now for download as a PDF.• Prospectus
ECBI Bonn Seminar 2007
On 13 May 2007, the ecbi Fellowship Programme held the second Bonn Seminar during the intersessional meeting of the UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies in Bonn, Germany to maintaining and strengthening the momentum of the trust-building activities of the Oxford Fellowships – particularly the North-South component. • Bonn Seminar flyer
Among the issues discussed were Integration of climate change and development, a potential 'Bali package', and the governance of the Adaptation Fund.
event calendar-ECBI Regional Workshops 2007
Last year we held a successful series of regional workshops for climate change negtiators from least developed countries countries in:
(i) Eastern and Southern Africa in Naivasha, Kenya,
(ii) Western./Francophone Africa in Bamako, Mali and
(iii) South and Southeast Asia in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Each workshop brought together the Climate Change Negotiators from all the least developed countries in each region (as well as representatives from Finance and Planning ministries from each country) to discuss and prepare for COP12 which was to be held in Nairobi in November 2006.
We are again planning to hold the series of regional workshops this year in preparation for COP13 in Bali, Indonesia in December 2007.
The proposed dates for the regional ecbi workshops are as follows:
1. Eastern and Southern Africa to be held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from 24 to 26 September (confirmed)
2. West/Francophone Africa to be held in Dakar, Senegal from 15 to 17 October (to be confirmed).
3. South and Souteast Asia to be held in Bangkok, Thailand (to be confirmed) from 29 to 31 October (to be confirmed).
Letters of Appreciation
Bubu Pateh Jallow, Mohammad Reazuddin
"...the ecbi institutions are the only ones that are implementing items (other than the NAPA Preparation) of the LDC Work Program under Article 4.9, particularly strengthening the negotiation skills of LDC Parties."• Mohammad Reazuddin's letter
-Mr. Bubu Pateh Jallow, Chair of the LDC Expert Group
"During 2006, I participated and was actively engaged in two regional workshops, organised to refresh as well as enhance further negotiation skills. I have noted how useful these interactions have been when I recall our collective performance in the negotiations over the past two years."
-Mr. Mohammad Reazuddin, Chair of the LDC Group
• Bubu Pateh Jallow's letter
Lessons learned in Preparing NAPAs in Eastern and Southern Africa
ecbi Policy Analysis Report by Dr. Balgis Osman Elasha, Climate Change Unit, Higher Council for Environment& Natural Resources (HCENR) Khartoum, Sudan, and Dr Thomas E. Downing, Stockholm Environment Institute, Oxford Office • ecbi PA Report
Independent Evaluation of the ecbi
"the ecbi is judged to be a very good, effective programme. It fills a void• document
and is innovative in its approach to both senior and junior negotiators"
Lessons learned from CDM project approval procedures in Southeast Asia
Unless a combination of all the success factors can be achieved, ASEAN countries will be able to attract some CDM niche investment but not be able to play in the CDM ‘champions’ league’• Document
Implementing the Nairobi Adaptation Fund Decision
The decision to adopt a ‘one-country-one-vote’ procedure for the Adaptation Fund could help secure political acceptance, but only if augmented by the right to force a secret vote.• Further information
Moritz Leuenberger, President of the Swiss Confederation
A Global Carbon Levy for Climate Change Adaptation• ecbi/IIED Opinion piece
"We need a global carbon levy to fund
these obligations in line with the ‘polluter pays’ principle."
-Moritz Leuenberger, President of the Swiss Confederation, IIED/ecbi Opinion paper 12 December 2006
Flying to new green heights:
The pre-budget report is likely to tax low-cost flights, but only international cooperation can solve climate change.
- Jim Giles, Guardian Unlimited, 6 December 2006.
"Western nations have little interest in boosting aid budgets. But an international tax would be collected and distributed by an international body, so there would be limited domestic political penalties for supporting it."
• IATAL Guardian article
ecbi Side Event at COP12/MOP2
The ecbi will hold a public side event at the EU Pavilion on its opening day (Tuesday 7 November), • Side event flyer
Time: 15:15h - 16:45h
List of speakers and topics:
Operationalising the Kyoto Protocol's Adaptation Fund - a new proposal
2006 ecbi Fellows
Three ecbi Fellows, Amjad Abdullah (Maldives), Bubu Pateh Jallow (The Gambia)and Mohammad Reazuddin (Bangladesh) have written an Opinion Piece on Operationalising the Kyoto Protocol's Adaptation Fund, a topic that will loom• Full text
large at the forthcoming Climate Change Conference in Nairobi.
First Francophone ecbi Regional Workshop in West Africa
Francophone 2006 West Africa Workshop
L'an 2006, du 10 au 12 octobre se sont déroulés dans les locaux de l'hotel OLYMPE, - Bamako (MALI) les travaux de l'atelier régional de renforcement des capacités sur les changements climatiques des pays francophones d'Afrique de l'Ouest. • Report
L'atelier a regroupé les points focaux de la Convention Cadre des Nations Unies sur les Changements Climatiques (CCNUCC), et les représentants des Ministeres chargés des Finances et/ou du Plan venus de Burkina Faso, Benin, Mali, Niger, Sénégal, Tchad, Guinée Conakry, Guinée Bissau, Gambie, et Togo.
• Fiche Atelier Mali
IATAL - International Air Travel Adaptation Levy
A Question of Responsibility and Solidarity
'The proposal should be used as starting point for the debate on how airlines can be made responsible for their emissions'; it is an innovative way of thinking, exploring new ways of supporting the adaptation fund.• weblink
Developing country participant of the 2006 ecbi Oxford Seminar
"IATAL - an outline proposal for an International Air Transport Adaptation Levy"
by Benito Müller and Cameron Hepburn,
EV36, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, October 2006
Lists of other publications by the authors available at: www.OxfordClimatePolicy.org
www.economics.ox.ac.uk/members/cameron.hepburn/ Download full report here.
• flyer for the report
Attracting more CDM projects to Africa
2006 East & Southern Africa Workshop
Despite efforts to establish necessary institutional structures, few CDM projects are taking place in Africa. The 2006 ecbi Regional Workshop for Eastern and Southern Africa suggested ways to improve the situation.• further information
Fellows propose new architecture for Adaptation Fund
The 2006 ecbi Oxford Fellows agree on a proposal to give the COP/MOP direct control of the Adaptation Fund, and ensure effective representation of countries’ interests.• further information
New governance structure needed for Adaptation Fund
The participants of the 2006 ecbi Regional Workshop for South and Southeast Asia call for different rules for the governance of the Adaptation Fund, which is based on mandatory private sector contributions from the CDM instead of voluntary donations from rich countries.• further information
Annual Report 2005/2006
Following its launch on 23 May 2005 during the 22nd Meeting of the UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies (SB) in Bonn, the ecbi has organised the Oxford Fellowships under the Fellowship Programme, a number of workshops and initiated two projects under the aegis of the Policy Analysis Programme.• further information
ecbi Senior Bursaries 2006
Senior Bursaries, Bonn 2006
ecbi funds the participation of senior delegates to participate in a Seminar and the intersessional UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies meetings in Bonn. In the first year of the scheme, five Bursaries were distributed to senior delegates from Bhutan, Egypt, Mali, Morocco and Thailand. • further information
ECBI Bonn Seminar 2006
In May 2006, the ECBI’s Oxford Fellowship Programme organised two capacity- and trust-building activities linked to the intersessional meeting of the UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies in Bonn, Germany: the Bonn Seminar and the Senior Bursaries 2006. • Further information
The Bonn Seminar was organised on 21 May 2006 with the purpose of maintaining and strengthening the momentum of the trust-building activities of the Oxford Fellowships – particularly the North-South component.
ecbi Fellow co-chairs successful compliance negotiations at COP/MOP1
Mamadou Honadia COP/MOP1 © IISD
Following informal consultations, Co-Chair Mamadou Honadia introduced a draft decision stating that Parties “approve and adopt” the compliance mechanism as contained in Decision 24/CP.7.
The text adds that consideration of an amendment to the Protocol will commence at SBI 24 with a view to making a decision at COP/MOP 3. Parties raised no objections and decided to forward it to COP/MOP 1 for adoption. [ENB Thursday, 8 December 2005 Vol. 12 No. 289 Page 2]
ecbi special event at COP11/MOP1
On Friday 2 December 2005, a special event was organised in the EU Pavilion at COP11/MOP1 in Montreal, Canada, to present an overview of ecbi activities in the first six months since its inception.
ecbi Regional Workshop, Dhaka
Participants highlighted the need to assess the lessons learned through the NAPA process and find ways to integrate• further information
climate change issues into national and sectoral policy and practice during the ecbi Regional Workshop for South and South East Asia, held from 30 to 31 October 2005.
ecbi Regional Workshop, Nanyuki, Kenya
The need for a review of CDM performance in Africa dominated discussions at the first ecbi Regional Workshop for Eastern and Southern Africa, held from 18 to 21 October 2005. • further information
"ecbi activities led to closer North-South relations" in Montreal
Mr Bubu Patheh Jallow, The Gambia, High-Level Statement COP11/MOP1
Following a request for information regarding North-South trust building activities from the floor at the high-level panel of the Development and Adaptation Days during the recent Montreal Climate Change Conference, Mr Bubu Pateh Jallow (lead negotiator of The Gambia), told the participants about the ecbi in general, and the Oxford Fellowships, in particular.
He conveyed the praise of his fellow negotiators who had participated in the 2005 Fellowships and his personal assessment that the ecbi activities had led to closer North-South relations during the Montreal negotiations.
He also suggested that it might be useful in this context if the European negotiators would find the time to visit their developing country colleagues to get a proper picture of the constraints they find themselves in.
2005 Oxford Fellowships
Rich discussions on post-2012 negotiations, CDM, mainstreaming, and impacts and adaptation characterised the pilot round of the ecbi Oxford Fellowships, which took place in Oxford from 18 to 30 September 2005. • further information
ecbi was officially launched at the 22nd meeting of the Subsidiary Bodies to the UNFCCC, in May 2005. • Further information